Friday, November 29, 2019

Applied Sciences 2020

February 26-27, 2020

About Conference:

Larix International is delighted to welcome everyone to Physics 2019 which is scheduled during February 26-27, 2020 in Dubai, UAE, addresses key issues that are the spine of technology and innovations impacting our lifestyle. Physics 2020 conference aims to improve the cognizance by claiming the world through perception, experimentation, and hypothesis. Physics 2019 summit solves engineering and medicine problems through exploratory standards. Similarly, Mathematics proves the description of nature and universe done on the basis of the principle of physics. Applied Sciences 2020 Conference aims to apply the mathematical models to different fields such as science, engineering, business, computer science, and industry. There is an immense opportunity to learn and express views through interactive sessions, poster presentation, and abstract publishing. Eminent Professionals, Scholar and Post Graduate young researcher will share their views and enhance knowledge on broad spectrum s of Physics and Mathematics. It will publish the abstracts of the research conducted by the prominent scientist and scholar. 

Why attend Applied Sciences 2020

1. To meet renowned speakers, the world's leading CEO's, Directors, decision and policymakers
2. Best opportunity to reach the largest assemblage of participants from Physics and mathematics community.
3. To share the research ideas and implement them.
4. Chance to collaborate with research organizations with industries.
5. To keep abreast of all advances in Research & Development in Physics & mathematics.
6. New contacts to enhance the business opportunities.

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Do you have any regrets for putting your parents in a nursing home

In a way I do, at least in the beginning. I was her beneficiary and I knew that if she stayed at home all her money would go to her at-home care, and when that ran out, my husband and I would be footing the bill as we already were for his own mother. It would be putting us in a deep financial hole that I didn’t feel was fair to my husband who has worked his ass off his entire life since age 14. These are all my “excuses” for allowing medicade  to pick up the tab for a woman who paid into the system her entire life also, since age 16.
What I find surprising, in retrospect, is how much I was in denial about her health. I always pride myself on being so brutally honest about facing the truth, but when it came to my own mother, I actually never thought she was as “bad off” as she really was; so I would feel guilty that she should be left with 2 other “out of it” roommates in a nursing home. I went there almost every day, engaged her in Bingo and all the other activities they offered, and refused to notice how under par her participation was.
For years I would tease her that if she ever stopped playing scrabble, I’d know it was time to call the undertaker. We played Scrabble all day, almost every day, for the last ten years of her life that she relocated from FL to CA (before the nursing home). We would call ourselves “Scrabble Sluts” and stay up til 2 or 3 a.m. hard at work playing cut-throat games. But, it was in the nursing home, when she started playing her own weird game that I could no longer deny the writing on the wall. Still, I felt guilty then and still feel a twinge now and then until I snap myself out of it and take a realistic look at the facts. The woman was in no condition to be at home the last 18 months of her life, so let her, and it, RIP.

Refer: Carol Cotton

Friday, August 9, 2019


Cosmology is a branch of astrophysics and is concerned with the very large scale structure of the universe, and its formation and history during its 13.8 billion year lifetime.

Astrophysics is a branch of physics concerned with all of the physical processes in the universe from the solar system on out, including, but not limited to, planetary science, stars and their formation and evolution, galaxy properties and their formation and evolution (which overlaps with cosmology).

(Source: Stephen Perrenod)

Cosmology serves three major functions.
1.     It organizes the sciences into a common theme and plot (theory) so they work together.
2.     This conceptualization provides means for practical lay interface with the sciences for general social function.
3.     The more accurate the theory, the closer to a sustainable model by which civilization can shape itself into a cooperative balance with nature.

It also serves secondary purposes like inspiring people into science or learning. Ignorance of the few is strength of the many, so encouraging education inspires people to also think for themselves. And of course if it is inspirational, it is also popular and profitable in the media and entertainment.
Ideally, a cosmology should be a working and evolving theory based on our most advanced conceptualizations and understandings that are themselves based exclusively in empirical facts. Not conjecture. Not hypothesis. Not interpretations. Based on how things actually work. I know it is unpopular, but we in science don’t have all the answers. We’re not supposed to. Knowing everything is the job of religion. Our job is understanding.
Quantum Relativity says a lot about cosmology, but the bottom line is the universe is the background within which big bangs happen. It then explains how the fabric of space time, the universe, and big bang processes work. Most importantly, it provides this handy architecture to assemble the physical sciences, and mathematical protocols to make that workable.

Friday, August 2, 2019

Surfaces and Interfaces

Surface science is the study of physical and chemical phenomena that occur at the interface of two phases, including solidliquid interfaces, solid–gas interfaces, solid–vacuum interfaces, and liquidgas interfaces. It includes the fields of surface chemistry and surface physics. Some related practical applications are classed as surface engineering. The science encompasses concepts such as heterogeneous catalysissemiconductor device fabricationfuel cellsself-assembled monolayers, and adhesives. Surface science is closely related to interface and colloid science. Interfacial chemistry and physics are common subjects for both. The methods are different. In addition, interface and colloid science studies macroscopic phenomena that occur in heterogeneous systems due to peculiarities of interfaces.
Surface physics can be roughly defined as the study of physical interactions that occur at interfaces. It overlaps with surface chemistry. Some of the topics investigated in surface physics include frictionsurface statessurface diffusionsurface reconstruction, surface phonons and plasmonsepitaxy, the emission and tunneling of electrons, spintronics, and the self-assembly of nanostructures on surfaces. Techniques to investigate processes at surfaces include Surface X-Ray ScatteringScanning Probe Microscopysurface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).
The study and analysis of surfaces involves both physical and chemical analysis techniques.
Several modern methods probe the topmost 1–10 nm of surfaces exposed to vacuum. These include X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy, ion scattering spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, dual polarization interferometry, and other surface analysis methods included in the list of materials analysis methods. Many of these techniques require vacuum as they rely on the detection of electrons or ions emitted from the surface under study. Moreover, in general ultra high vacuum, in the range of 10−7 pascal pressure or better, it is necessary to reduce surface contamination by residual gas, by reducing the number of molecules reaching the sample over a given time period. At 0.1 mPa (10−6 torr) partial pressure of a contaminant and standard temperature, it only takes on the order of 1 second to cover a surface with a one-to-one monolayer of contaminant to surface atoms, so much lower pressures are needed for measurements. This is found by an order of magnitude estimate for the (number) specific surface area of materials and the impingement rate formula from the kinetic theory of gases.
Purely optical techniques can be used to study interfaces under a wide variety of conditions. Reflection-absorption infrared, dual polarisation interferometry, surface enhanced Raman and sum frequency generation spectroscopies can be used to probe solid–vacuum as well as solid–gas, solid–liquid, and liquid–gas surfaces. Multi-Parametric Surface Plasmon Resonance works in solid-gas, solid-liquid, liquid-gas surfaces and can detect even sub-nanometer layers. It probes the interaction kinetics as well as dynamic structural changes such as liposome collapse or swelling of layers in different pH. Dual Polarization Interferometry is used to quantify the order and disruption in birefringent thin films. This has been used, for example, to study the formation of lipid bilayers and their interaction with membrane proteins.
X-ray scattering and spectroscopy techniques are also used to characterize surfaces and interfaces. While some of these measurements can be performed using laboratory X-ray sources, many require the high intensity and energy tunability of synchrotron radiation. X-ray crystal truncation rods (CTR) and X-ray standing wave (XSW) measurements probe changes in surface and adsorbate structures with sub-Ångström resolution. Surface-extended X-ray absorption fine structure (SEXAFS) measurements reveal the coordination structure and chemical state of adsorbates. Grazing-incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) yields the size, shape, and orientation of nanoparticles on surfaces. The crystal structure and texture of thin films can be investigated using grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD, GIXRD).
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a standard tool for measuring the chemical states of surface species and for detecting the presence of surface contamination. Surface sensitivity is achieved by detecting photoelectrons with kinetic energies of about 10-1000 eV, which have corresponding inelastic mean free paths of only a few nanometers. This technique has been extended to operate at near-ambient pressures (ambient pressure XPS, AP-XPS) to probe more realistic gas-solid and liquid-solid interfaces. Performing XPS with hard X-rays at synchrotron light sources yields photoelectrons with kinetic energies of several keV (hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, HAXPES), enabling access to chemical information from buried interfaces.
Modern physical analysis methods include scanning-tunneling microscopy (STM) and a family of methods descended from it, including atomic force microscopy. These microscopies have considerably increased the ability and desire of surface scientists to measure the physical structure of many surfaces. For example, they make it possible to follow reactions at the solid–gas interface in real space, if those proceed on a time scale accessible by the instrument.

Source: Wikipedia

Thursday, July 25, 2019


Like all the different types of light, the spectrum of visible light is absorbed and emitted in the form of tiny packets of energy called as photons. These photons have both the properties of a wave as well as a particle. Hence this type of property is called as wave–particle duality and the study of light in the area of physics is known as Optics.
Optics is a branch of physics that deals with the determination of behavior and the properties of light, along with its interactions with the matter and also with the instruments which are used to detect it. Optics, in a simple manner, is used to describe the behavior of visible light, infrared light, and the ultraviolet. Imaging is done with the help of a system called as an image forming an optical system.

Light and its Optical properties

Light is a form of energy which is in the form of an electromagnetic wave and is almost everywhere around us. The visible light has wavelengths measuring between 400–700 nanometres. Sun is the primary source of light by which plants utilize this to produce their energy.
In physics, the term light also refers to electromagnetic radiation of different kinds of wavelength, whether it is visible to the naked eye or not. Hence by this, the gamma rays, microwaves, X-rays and the radio waves are also types of light. Light exhibits various properties which are given below-
  • Reflection- Reflection is one of the primary properties of light. Reflection is nothing but what you see the images in the mirrors. Reflection is defined as the change in direction of light at an interface in-between two different media so that the wave-front returns into a medium from which it was originated. The typical examples for reflection of light include sound waves and water waves.
  • Speed of light- The rate at which the light travels in free space is called as Speed of light. For example, the light travels 30% slower in water when compared to vacuum.
  • Refraction- The bending of light when it passes from one medium to another is called as Refraction. This property of refraction is used in a number of devices like microscopes, magnifying lenses, corrective lenses, and so on. In this property, when the light is transmitted through a medium, polarization of electrons takes place which in-turn reduces the speed of light, thus changing the direction of light.
  • Total internal reflection- When a beam of light strikes the water, a part of the light is reflected, and some part of the light is refracted. This phenomenon is called as Total internal reflection.
  • Dispersion- It is a property of light, where the white light splits into its constituent colors. The phenomenon of dispersion can be observed in the form of a prism.
The other properties of light include diffraction and interference. So, what you observe when, you look out at the beautiful scenario? Whether the light gets reflected, dispersed, refracted, internally reflected or diffracted.

Applications of Optics

The properties of optics are applied in various fields of Physics-
  • The refraction phenomenon is applied in the case of lenses (Convex and concave) for the purpose of forming an image of the object.
  • Geometrical optics is used in studying of how the images form in an optical system.
  • In medical applications, it is used in the optical diagnosis of the mysteries of the human body.
  • It is used in the therapeutical and surgeries of the human tissues.

(Source: byjus)

Monday, July 22, 2019

Space Research

Space Science is the study and exploration of anything and everything to do with whatever is out there beyond Earth’s immediate influence. Here I am ignoring the fact that Earth’s gravitational influence stretches a long long way beyond our atmosphere.

Space Science includes disciplines of astronomy (studying things in space by remote observation and data) and aerospace engineering (reaching out into space for exploiting its resources, using its location advantages, and gathering data on celestial objects).
Earth is so small that whatever science has achieved until now is a tiny (tending to zero) part of the possibilities of science. The rest is out there, in space, to observe, understand, discover, and invent for. In the timeline of science we haven’t even taken the first full step since humans starting walking on Earth.
We still have to understand most of:
·         How the universe was formed and how it works
·         What’s on the other planets, stars, galaxies, star systems, and everything between them
·         How and why the objects in the universe were formed and how they interact
·         Life beyond Earth
·         The possibilities of traveling in space and our limits for it
·         How objects in space affect us in the short and long term

(Ref: Prashant Dobriyal)

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

3D Printing technology

What is 3D printing?

3D printing or additive manufacturing is a process of making three dimensional solid objects from a digital file. The creation of a 3D printed object is achieved using additive processes. In an additive process an object is created by laying down successive layers of material until the object is created.  Each of these layers can be seen as a thinly sliced horizontal cross-section of the eventual object.

How does 3D printing work?

It all starts with making a virtual design of the object you want to create. This virtual design is for instance a CAD (Computer Aided Design) file. This CAD file is created using a 3D modeling application or with a 3D scanner (to copy an existing object). A 3D scanner can make a 3D digital copy of an object.

Types of 3D printers or 3D printing technologies overview

Stereolithography is a 3d printing method that can be used to implement your projects that involve 3D printing of objects. Although this method is the oldest one in history of 3D printing it’s still being used nowadays. The idea and application of this method are amazing. Whether you are a mechanical engineer, who needs to verify if the part can fit to your design, or creative person who wants to make a plastic prototype of new coming project, Stereolithography can help you to turn your models into a real 3D printed object.

Fused deposition modeling (FDM) technology was developed and implemented at first time by Scott Crump, Stratasys Ltd. founder, in 1980s. Other 3D printing companies have adopted similar technologies but under different names. With help of FDM you can print not only functional prototypes, but also concept models and final end-use products. What is good about this technology that all parts printed with FDM can go in high-performance and engineering-grade thermoplastic, which is very beneficial for mechanic engineers and manufactures.

Laser Sintering (SLS) is a technique that uses laser as power source to form solid 3D objects. This technique was developed by Carl Deckard, a student of Texas University, and his professor Joe Beaman in 1980s. Later on they took part in foundation of Desk Top Manufacturing (DTM) Corp., that was sold to its big competitor 3D Systems in 2001. As was stated previously, 3D systems Inc. developed stereolithography, which in some way is very similar to Selective Laser Sintering. The main difference between SLS and SLA is that it uses powdered material in the vat instead of liquid resin as stereolithography does.